By Emilio Zagheni, Marina Zannella, Gabriel Movsesyan, Brittney Wagner
This comparative research of eu time transfers unearths the whole quantity of transfers within the type of unpaid paintings and highlights the life of significant gender ameliorations in loved ones time construction. a wide volume of products and companies are produced by way of loved ones individuals for his or her personal intake, with out regarding industry transactions. regardless of the commercial and social value of unpaid paintings, those efficient actions are mostly invisible to standard nationwide financial debts. for this reason, regular measures of intergenerational transfers in most cases forget about loved ones construction, and therefore underestimate the general worth of products and providers produced over the existence cycle; particularly, the industrial contribution of women. The e-book makes use of a lifestyles direction method of provide policy-relevant insights into the influence of demographic and social swap on intergenerational ties and gender inequality in family production.
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Extra resources for A Comparative Analysis of European Time Transfers between Generations and Genders
3 Profiles by Age, Sex and Education 39 The two figures offer three important insights. First, having a young child (less than 5 years old) is associated with an increase in time production for both men and women. However, the increase is substantially larger for women (often twice as much). Thus, the time requirements related to childbearing are quite skewed. Second, as the children grow up, the unpaid time dedicated to the household reverts, on average, to the level of no-child households for men.
The combination of changes in the labor market together with the persistence of a number of social norms have led to an increased “time squeeze” for women (Sambt et al. 2014). Across Europe, and more broadly across the globe, educational attainment has been increasing over time. The trend is expected to continue over the next decades (Lutz et al. 2014). If the relationship between education and time use persists, we expect that further improvements in women’s educational attainment will lead to reductions in the gender gap in household (unpaid) production.
We observed the existence of a gender gap in time production for all countries in our sample. Women spend more time than men on household production over the entire life course. The gender gap starts at young ages and is amplified by life course transitions like marriage and childbearing. The life course approach to the study of intergenerational transfers shows the importance of life course transitions on time use. Having young children in the household is associated with a significant increase in time dedicated to household production, for both men and women.
A Comparative Analysis of European Time Transfers between Generations and Genders by Emilio Zagheni, Marina Zannella, Gabriel Movsesyan, Brittney Wagner